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Paralinguistic features of languages

语言的副语言特征
Good morning, everyone. Today we'll continue our discussion on describing language.
大家早上好。今天我们继续讨论语言的描述。
Last week we examined such features of language as grammar, vocabulary, the sounds of language, etc.
上周,我们研究了语言的语法、词汇、声音等特征。
In this lecture, we'll look at another important aspect of language. Perhaps some of you may wonder what is this important aspect of language.
在这节课中,我们将学习语言的另一个重要方面。也许你们可能想知道,语言的这一重要方面是什么。
Let me tell you. It refers to features of communication that takes place without the use of grammar and vocabulary. They are called "paralinguistic features of language".
让我来告诉你。它指的是在没有语法和词汇的情况下进行的交流的特点。它们被称为“语言的副语言特征”。
These features fall into two broad categories: those that involve voice and those that involve the body.
这些特征分为两大类:与声音有关的和与身体有关的。
Now, the first category, is what we call vocal paralinguistic features. Vocal features are actually tones of voice.
第一类,就是我们所说的声音的副语言特征。这种特征实际上是声音的音调。
While they are, perhaps, not central to meaning in communication in the same way as grammar or vocabulary, they may, nevertheless, convey attitude or intention in some way.
虽然它们可能并不像语法或词汇一样在交流中具有重要意义,但它们可能在某种程度上传达了态度或意图。
Let me give you some examples. The first is whispering, which indicates the needs for secrecy. The second is breathiness. This is to show deep emotion.
让我给你们举几个例子。第一个是低语,这表明需要保密。第二个是呼吸声。这表达了一种深沉的情感。
The third is huskiness, which is to show unimportance. The fourth is nasality. This is to indicate anxiety.
第三个是粗嘎声,这表明不重要。第四是鼻声。这是表示焦虑。
The last is extra lip-rounding, which expresses greater intimacy, especially with babies, for example.
最后一个是特意的唇圆口型,这表示更亲密,特别是对婴儿。
So we can see that there are a number of ways of altering our tone of voice. And when we do this consciously, we do it to create different effects in communication.
所以我们可以看到有很多方法可以改变我们的语调。有意识地这样做时,我们会在交流中创造不同的效果。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
secrecy ['si:krisi]

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n. 秘密,保密,隐蔽

 
indicate ['indikeit]

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v. 显示,象征,指示
v. 指明,表明

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nevertheless [.nevəðə'les]

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adv. 仍然,不过
conj. 然而,不过

 
convey [kən'vei]

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vt. 传达,表达,运输,转移
vt.

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intention [in'tenʃən]

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n. 意图,意向,目的

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intimacy ['intiməsi]

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n. 亲密,隐私

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tone [təun]

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n. 音调,语气,品质,调子,色调
vt. 使

 
consciously ['kɔnʃəsli]

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adv. 有意识地,自觉地

 
communication [kə.mju:ni'keiʃn]

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n. 沟通,交流,通讯,传达,通信

 
category ['kætigəri]

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n. 种类,类别

 
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